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On This Day in:

1574 – France began the 5th Holy War against the Huguenots.

1660 – Charles XI became the king of Sweden.

1792 – The Humane Society of Massachusetts was incorporated.

1813 – The first U.S. raw cotton-to-cloth mill was founded in Waltham, MA.

1821 – The Philadelphia College of Apothecaries established the first pharmacy college.

1822 – Boston was incorporated as a city.

1836 – In San Antonio, TX, the siege of the Alamo began.

1839 – In Boston, MA, William F. Harnden organized the first express service between Boston and New York City. It was the first express service in the U.S.

1847 – Santa Anna was defeated at the Battle of Buena Vista in Mexico by U.S. troops under Gen. Zachary.

1861 – U.S. President-elect Abraham Lincoln arrived secretly in Washington to take his office after an assassination attempt in Baltimore.

1861 – Texas became the 7th state to secede from the Union.

1870 – The state of Mississippi was readmitted to the Union.

1874 – Walter Winfield patented a game called 'sphairistike.' More widely known as lawn tennis.

1886 – Charles M. Hall completed his invention of aluminum.

1896 – The Tootsie Roll was introduced by Leo Hirshfield.

1898 – In France, Emile Zola was imprisoned for his letter, 'J'accuse,' which accused the government of anti-Semitism and wrongly jailing Alfred Dreyfus.

1904 – The U.S. acquired control of the Panama Canal Zone for

$10 million.

1905 – The Rotary Club was founded in Chicago, IL, by Attorney Paul Harris and three others.

1910 – In Philadelphia, PA, the first radio contest was held.

1916 – The U.S. Congress authorizes the McKinley Memorial $1 gold coin.

1919 – The Fascist Party was formed in Italy by Benito Mussolini.

1927 – The FCC began assigning frequencies, hours of operation and power allocations for radio broadcasters.

1932 – Robert Short became the first American to die in an arial battle with the Japanese.

1940 – Walt Disney's animated movie 'Pinocchio' was released.

1945 – The 28th Regiment of the Fifth Marine Division of the U.S.

Marines reached the top of Mount Surabachi. A photograph of these Marines raising the American flag was taken.

1954 – The first mass vaccination of children against polio began in Pittsburgh, PA.

1957 – The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the NFL operations did fall within coverage of antitrust laws.

1958 – Juan Fangio, 5-time world diving champion, was kidnapped by Cuban rebels.

1963 – The 24th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified.

It prohibited poll taxes in federal elections.

1968 – Wilt Chamberlain (Philadelphia 76ers) became the first player to score 25,000 career points in the NBA.

1974 – The Symbionese Liberation Army demanded $4 million more for the release of Patty Hearst. Hearst had been kidnapped on February 4th.

1980 – Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini declared that Iran's new parliament would have to decide the fate of the hostages taken on November 4, 1979, at the U.S. embassy in Tehran.

1991 – During the Persian Gulf War, ground forces crossed the border of Saudi Arabia into the country of Iraq. Less than four days later the war was over due to the surrender or withdraw of Iraqi forces

.1993 – Gary Coleman won a $1,280,000 lawsuit against his parents.

1995 – The Dow Jones Industrial closed above 4,000 for the first time at 4,003.33.

1997 – NBC-TV aired 'Schindler's List.' It was completely uncensored and without commercial interruption.

“There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.”

— Galatians 3:28 (ESV)

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